Sections on this Page:

- Coordinate, Position & Elevation Data Types
- Single Observation Data Types
- Multiple Observation Data Types
- Sideshot Data Type
- Direction Set Data Types
- Traverse Data Types
- Leveling Data Type
- GPS Vector Data
- Standard Errors
- Inline Options

NOTE: This page is intended as a quick reference only, please refer to the Help files included with STAR*NET for complete descriptions and more examples.

## Coordinate, Position & Elevation Data Types

C |
Coordinates for a Station |

CH |
Coordinates for a Station specifying Ellipsoid Heights |

2D Format |
C Station North East [Std Errors] ['Description] |

3D Format |
C Station North East Elevation [Std Errors] ['Description] CH Station North East Elevation [Std Errors] ['Description] |

P |
Geodetic Positions for a Station |

PH |
Geodetic Positions for a Station specifying Ellipsoid Heights |

2D Format |
P Station Latitude Longitude [Std Errors] ['Description] P Station DD.MMSSsss DD.MMSSsss [Std Errors] ['Description] |

3D Format |
P Station Latitude Longitude Elev [Std Errors] ['Description] PH Station Latitude Longitude Elev [Std Errors] ['Description] P Station DD.MMSSsss DD.MMSSsss Elev [Std Errors] ['Description] |

E |
Elevation for a Station |

EH |
Elevation for a Station specifying Ellipsoid Heights |

Format |
E Station Elevation [Std Error] ['Description] EH Station Elevation [Std Error] ['Description] |

## Single Observation Data Types

A |
Horizontal Angle |

Format |
A At-From-To Angle [Std Error] ['Description] |

D |
Distance |

2D Format |
D From-To Horizontal Distance [Std Error] ['Description] |

3D Format 1 |
D From-To Slope Distance [Std Error] [HI/HT] ['Description] |

3D Format 2 |
D From-To Horizontal Distance [Std Error] ['Description] |

V |
Vertical Observation |

3D Format 1 |
V From-To Zenith [Standard Error] [HI/HT] ['Description] |

3D Format 2 |
V From-To Elevation Difference [Standard Error] [HI/HT] ['Description] |

B |
Bearing or Azimuth |

Format |
B From-To Bearing or Azimuth [Standard Error] ['Description] |

## Multiple Observation Data Types

M |
All Measurements to Another Station |

2D Format |
M At-From-To Angle Distance [Std Errs] ['Description] |

3D Format 1 |
M At-From-To Angle Slope Dist Zenith [Std Errs] [HI/HT] ['Description] |

3D Format 2 |
M At-From-To Angle Horiz Dist Elev Diff [Std Errs] [HI/HT] ['Description] |

BM |
Bearing and Measurements to Another Station |

2D Format |
BM From-To Bearing (or Azimuth) Distance [Std Errs] ['Description] |

3D Format 1 |
BM From-To Bearing (or Az) Slope Dist Zenith [Std Errs] [HI/HT] ['Description] |

3D Format 2 |
BM From-To Bearing (or Az) Horiz Dist Elev Diff [Std Errs] [HI/HT] ['Description] |

DV |
Distance and Vertical Measurement to Another Station |

3D Format 1 |
DV From-To Slope Distance Zenith [Std Errs] [HI/HT] ['Description] |

3D Format 2 |
DV From-To Horiz Distance Elev Diff [Std Errs] [HI/HT] ['Description] |

## Sideshot Data Type

SS |
Sideshot |

2D Format |
SS At-From-To Angle Distance ['Description] |

3D Format 1 |
SS At-From-To Angle Slope Distance Zenith [HI/HT] ['Description] |

3D Format 2 |
SS At-From-To Angle Horiz Distance Elev Diff [HI/HT] ['Description] |

## Direction Set Data Types

DB |
Direction Begin |

DN |
Direction Reading |

DM |
Direction with All Measurements |

DE |
Direction End |

Example |
DB 111 # At 111 begin reading directions DN 7 00-59-31 # Direction to 7 DN 6 08-44-11 # Direction to 6 DM 5 22-27-18 753.55 # Direction & Distance to 5 DM 4 33-10-11 726.78 # etc... DN 3 38-31-19 DE # End the direction set |

## Traverse Data Types

TB |
Traverse Begin |

T |
Traverse Measurements |

TE |
Traverse End |

Example |
TB N45-30-40W # Backsight to fixed bearing T 1 123-40-28 537.52 T 2 217-11-37 719.56 T 3 113-52-15 397.66 T 4 260-19-24 996.23 TE 5 # End traverse at 5 # TB 1 # Backsight to 1 T 2 120-11-12 473.25 T 6 -101-32-30 625.76 T 7 198-13-09 533.66 T 8 172-07-27 753.22 T 9 -84-32-20 661.01 TE 5 -73-02-46 4 # End, turn angle to 4 |

## Leveling Data Type

L |
Differential Level Observation Information |

Format 1 |
L From-To ElevDiff Distance [Std Errs] ['Description] |

Format 2 |
L From-To ElevDiff Turns [Std Errs] ['Description] |

Example |
L 33-79 2.546 1798 L 79-80 -4.443 931 'Bench 81-1987 L 79-81 0.231 855 L 80-132 1.322 2509 0.14 #Example of explicit Std Error L 92-93 -5.024 752 .LWEIGHT 0.05 #Change Default Weighting L 12-15 0.244 1245 L 15-16 3.145 955 |

## GPS Vector Data

Imported vector information (including any base and rover antenna heights) supplied on G1, G2 and G3 data lines will always be in Meters whether or not the project is setup to run in Meters. When the project is setup to run in other linear units, for example FeetUS, vector information is automatically converted to project units for calculations and output in the listing file.

G0 |
Vector Identification |

G1 |
Station Names and ECEF DX, DY, and DZ vector components |

G2 & G3 |
Weighting |

G4 |
Offset |

Covariance Weighting |
G2 CvXX CvYY CvZZ #vector covariances G3 CvXY CvXZ CvYZ #vector covariances |

Standard Error and Correlation Weighting |
G2 SDX SDY SDZ #vector standard errors G3 CrXY CrXZ CrYZ #vector correlations |

Offset |
G4 Azimuth SlopeDistance Zenith #position offset |

Example |
.GPS WEIGHT COVARIANCE G0 'V532 Day134(3) 01:15 12346643.SSF G1 0036-0040 4861.328134 -348.097034 2463.249801 G2 4.35804625082312E-008 2.00368296412947E-007 1.23348139662277E-007 G3 1.29776877121456E-008 -4.73073036591065E-009 -7.87018453390485E-008 G4 180-00-00 0.300 90-00-00 |

## Standard Errors

A "standard error" is a value used to weight an observation. When you enter standard error values on a data line, they always directly follow the group of observations, one standard error value for each observation. A standard error may be entered as a numeric value or as a special symbol. The following table explains the various entries.

Blank |
If no standard error values are given, the instrument settings will be used to weight the observation. |

& |
This symbol tells STAR*NET to apply the standard error settings from the instrument settings. This symbol is usually not necessary unless you need to mix project default standard errors with other types of standard error input. |

! |
"Fix" an observation - Observation will not be adjusted. |

* |
"Float" an observation - Observation will be treated as an initial input value and will carry no weight during the adjustment. |

Numeric Value |
The numeric standard error value will be applied as the standard deviation for that observation alone. |

Examples |
C 100 1000.000 1000.000 100.000 'Description # Coordinate input for Point 100 are assumed to be free for adjustment C 101 1000.000 1000.000 100.000 !!! 'Description # Coordinate input for Point 101 will be held "fixed" C 102 1000.000 1000.000 100.000 .01 .01 .01 'Description # Coordinate input for Point 102 will be given the standard deviation of .01 units C 103 1000.000 1000.000 100.000 !!* 'Description # X, Y values for Point 103 will be held "fixed" but the Z value will "float" M 1-2-104 80-00-00 123.456 90-00-00 &&* 1.23/1.45 'Description # Angle and Slope Distance in this M record will be weighted as per project # settings but the Zenith will "float" so it has no weight in the adjustment |

## Inline Options

# | Specifies beginning of comment, only for current line |

.2D | Change data format to 2D |

.3D | Change data format to 3D |

.3R | Change data format to 3D and reduce slope distance and zeniths to horizontal distances (.3REDUCE) |

.ADDC ON | Standard errors inflated by centering error settings |

.ADDC OFF | Normal behaviour, standard errors used as given |

.ALIAS NAME | Define Point ID name aliases |

.ALIAS NAME ON | Turn name aliasing on |

.ALIAS NAME OFF | Turn name aliasing off |

.ALIAS NAME CLEAR | Clear previously defined name aliases |

.ALIAS PREFIX | Define Point ID aliases using a Prefix Scheme |

.ALIAS PREFIX ON | Turn prefix aliasing on |

.ALIAS PREFIX OFF | Turn prefix aliasing off |

.ALIAS PREFIX CLEAR | Clear previously defined prefix aliases |

.ALIAS SUFFIX | Define Point ID aliases using a Suffix Scheme |

.ALIAS SUFFIX ON | Turn suffix aliasing on |

.ALIAS SUFFIX OFF | Turn suffix aliasing off |

.ALIAS SUFFIX CLEAR | Clear previously defined suffix aliases |

.ALIAS ADDITIVE | Define Point ID aliases using a Additive Number Scheme |

.ALIAS ADDITIVE ON | Turn additve aliasing on |

.ALIAS ADDITIVE OFF | Turn additve aliasing off |

.ALIAS ADDITIVE CLEAR | Clear previously defined additive aliases |

.ALIAS ON | Turn all aliasing on |

.ALIAS OFF | Turn all aliasing off |

.ALIAS CLEAR | Clear all previously defined aliases |

.BASE | Define Base Point ID and reduced antenna height in *.raw vector file |

.COPY OFF | Turn off "Copy of Input Data Files" for the Listing File |

.COPY ON | Turn on "Copy of Input Data Files" for the Listing File |

.CURVE OFF | Turn off correction for earth curvature & refraction, zenith observations assumed to be corrected by user |

.CURVE ON | Turn on correction for earth curvature & refraction (Default) |

.DATA OFF | Exclude input data that follows this inline option |

.DATA ON | Include input data that follows this inline option |

.DELTA OFF | Explicitly set to Slope Distances and Zenith Angles Format |

.DELTA ON | Explicitly set to Horizontal Distances and Elevation Differences |

.EDM ADDITIVE | Set additive method for EDM standard errors - Constant + PPM (Default) |

.EDM PROPOGATED | Set propogated method for EDM standard errors - Square root of Constant² + PPM² |

.ELEV ELLIP | Legacy method to define elevation as ellipsoidal |

.ELEV ORTHO | Legacy method to define elevation as orthometric |

.ELLIPSE | Show error ellipses only for the list of stations provided |

.GPS ADDHIHT #1 #2 | Correction to be applied to base and rover heights - #1=base antenna offset, #2=rover antenna offset |

.GPS CENTER #1 | Same as "Apply Centering to StdErrs" option - #1=horizontal centering |

.GPS CENTER #1 VERT #2 | Same as "Apply Centering to StdErrs" option - #1=horizontal centering, #2=vertical centering |

.GPS DEFAULT #1 #2 | Same as "Apply Default StdErrs to Vectors with no Supplied Weighting" option - #1=StdErr, #2=PPM |

.GPS DEFAULT #1 #2 VERT #3 #4 | Same as "Apply Default StdErrs to Vectors with no Supplied Weighting" option - #1=Hz StdErr, #2=Hz PPM, #3=Vt StdErr, #4=Vt PPM |

.GPS DEFAULT FREE | Vectors with missing G2 & G3 lines will be included in the network but have no influence |

.GPS DEFAULT IGNORE | Vectors with missing G2 & G3 lines will be excluded from the network |

.GPS FACTOR #1 | Same as "Factor Supplied Vector StdErrs by" option - #1=Factor |

.GPS FACTOR #1 VERT #2 | Same as "Factor Supplied Vector StdErrs by" option - #1=Hz Factor, #2=Vt Factor |

.GPS FACTOR FREE | Vectors with G2 & G3 lines will be included in network but have no influence |

.GPS FACTOR IGNORE | Vectors with G2 & G3 lines will be excluded from the network |

.GPS FREE | Free up list of vectors to not influence the adjustment |

.GPS IGNORE | Exclude list of vectors from the network |

.GPS NETWORK | Vectors following this comand will be included in the network adjustment (Default) |

.GPS SS | Vectors following this command will be solved after least squares solution is found for the network |

.GPS USE #1 #2 | Supply custom weighting - #1=StdErr, #2=PPM |

.GPS USE #1 #2 VERT #3 #4 | Supply custom weighting - #1=Hz StdErr, #2=Hz PPM, #3=Vt StdErr, #4=Vt PPM |

.GPS USE FREE | Vectors will be included in the network but have no influence |

.GPS USE IGNORE | Vectors will be excluded from the network |

.GPS USE OFF | Turn off custom weighting and revert to original |

.GPS WEIGHT COVARIANCE | Weighting type set to covariances |

.GPS WEIGHT STDERRCORR | Weighting type set to standard errors and correlations |

.INCLUDE | No longer necessary, but can be used to insert data from other files |

.INST | Set instrument weighting scheme to specified Instrument Library profile |

.LONG NEG | Set Negative West Longitude sign convention |

.LONG | Set Positive West Longitude sign convention |

.LOSTSTATIONS | Specify a list of stations to omit from Network Plot |

.LWEIGHT #1 | Override "Elev Diff" standard error and sets "Length" section type - #1=StdErr |

.LWEIGHT #1 TURNS | Override "Elev Diff" standard error and sets "Turns" section type - #1=StdErr |

.LWEIGHT | Return to Project Defaults |

.MAP ON | Turn on MAPMODE, horizontal angles in Traverse lines will be read as bearings/azimuths |

.MAP OFF | Turn off MAPMODE, Traverse line content back to default |

.MAP ON ANG | Turn on MAPMODE, closing angles calculated and included in adjustment |

.MEASURED BEA | Bearings will be interpreted as measured (Geodetic) |

.MEASURED DIST | Distances will be interpreted as measured (Geodetic) |

.MEASURED ANG | Angles will be interpreted as measured (Geodetic) |

.MEASURED DIR | Directions will be interpreted as measured (Geodetic) |

.MEASURED BEA DIST ANG DIR | Various combinations possible |

.GRID BEA | Bearings will be interpreted as grid |

.GRID DIST | Distances will be interpreted as grid |

.GRID DIST=ELLIP | Distances will be interpreted as ellipsoidal |

.GRID ANG | Angles will be interpreted as grid |

.GRID DIR | Directions will be interpreted as grid |

.GRID BEA DIST ANG DIR | Various combinations possible |

.MULTIPLIER | Superceeded by .UNITS but can be used to apply a multipliler to input data |

.ORDER NE | Set Coordinate Order Northing-Easting |

.ORDER EN | Set Coordinate Order Easting-Northing |

.ORDER ATFROMTO | Sets order to Station-Backsight-Foresight for input data that include angles |

.ORDER FROMATTO | Sets order to Backsight-Station-Foresight for input data that include angles |

.PELEV | Redefine project default elevation in "2D" local and grid jobs |

.PRISM #1 | Prism constant (in mm) to be added to your distance observations - #1=Constant |

.PRISM #1 #2 | Prism constants (in mm) to calculate correction to apply to your distance observations, Constant 1 minus Constant 2 is used - #1=Constant 1, #2=Constant 2 |

.PRISM OFF | Turns off previously specified Prism constant correction |

.PRISM ON | Turns back on previously specified Prism constant correction |

.PRISM CLEAR | Reinitializes any previously defined corrections |

.REF #1 | Change "Default Coefficient for Refraction" - #1=New Value |

.REF 0 | Turn off refraction corrections |

.REF | Reset refraction coefficient to project default |

.REL | Supply list of station pairs that will be included in relative ellipse listing and plotting |

.REL /OBS | Supply list of station pairs as with .REL, but specify that the list contain all the station pairs connected by observations |

.REL /CON | Supply list of stations to exhaustively create connections between |

.REL /CON=GroupName | Assign named group to list of stations to exhaustively create connections between |

.REL /EVERY | Creates an exhaustive list connecting every point |

.PTOL | Supply list of station pairs that will be included in point tolerance checking |

.PTOL /OBS | Supply list of station pairs as with .PTOL, but specify that the list contain all the station pairs connected by observations |

.PTOL /CON | Supply list of stations to exhaustively create connections between |

.PTOL /CON=GroupName | Assign named group to list of stations to exhaustively create connections between |

.PTOL /EVERY | Creates an exhaustive list connecting every point |

.SCALE #1 | Changes the "Apply an Average Scale Factor" option in 2D/3D "Local" coordinate system projects - #1=Scale Factor |

.SCALE | Resets value back to default originally set in Project Options |

.SEPARATOR | Provide a character to change the default "dash" used to separate station names in input files |

.UNITS METERS | Set linear unit to Meters for following observations |

.UNITS FEETINT | Set linear unit to International Feet for following observations |

.UNITS FEETUS | Set linear unit to US Survey Feet for following observations |

.UNITS DMS | Set angular unit to Degrees/Minutes/Seconds for following observations |

.UNITS GONS | Set angular unit to Gons for following observations |

.UNITS CSECONDS | Set standard error unit to Centesimal Seconds for following observations |

.UNITS MGONS | Set standard error unit to Milligons for following observations |

.VLEVEL | Legacy method to define Level section input |

## Jacob Wall

## Comments